Kurnool is the gateway to the Rayalaseema Region and the third largest district in the state of Andhra Pradesh. It has a surface area of 17.658 sq km and a population density of 229 people per sq km.

According to the 2011 Census, the district's total population is 4.046.601, 2.040.101 males and 2.006.500 females. The district's literacy rate is 61.13%, and there is a marked difference between male literacy (71.36%) and female literacy (50.81%). For every 1,000 males there are 984 females. Nonetheless, the 2011 Census shows that there are only 937 girl children between the ages of 0 and 6 per 1,000 male children, compared with 958 in 2001, indicating the selective abortion of female fetuses or female infanticide. The district is divided into 54 Revenue Mandals and 3 Revenue Divisions. There are 920 Revenue Villages and 615 hamlets in the district.

The main crops are paddy, groundnut, jowar, cotton, bajra, tobacco, and sugarcane. Crops like paddy, sugarcane, and groundnut are farmed in ayacut areas with canals. Crops like groundnut, onions, chilies, and vegetables are farmed in well-irrigated areas. The district receives an average of 670 mm of rain per year. Only 23% of land has irrigation facilities, while the rest depends on sporadic rainfall.

As in Anantapur, monsoons often fail to develop, prompting depleted groundwater levels and decreased yields and ultimately resulting in crop failure. Farmers prefer wet crops despite the inadequate water supply, and eventually become debt ridden after accepting loans from moneylenders. The non-availability of water at the appropriate time, the use of low-quality seeds and pesticides are leading factors in the crop failures of recent years. 

The steady migration of people from villages in the district, namely Aluru, Adoni, Yemmiganur, Pathikonda, Kodumur, and Dhone Mandals, has also become patent. Families leave their home villages immediately after the Sankranti Festival in January and do not return until late May, just in time for the next farming season. In these villages, about two-thirds of the population, primarily small farmers with between 5 and 10 acres of land, abandon their homes, leaving the elderly behind. The parents even take the children with them.

RDT has spent the past 4 years implementing its comprehensive development programs in 291 villages from 11 Revenue Mandals in the Kurnool District, establishing regional headquarters in both Pattikonda and Aluru. It has begun educational programs, environmental programs, housing construction, water schemes, school construction, and other developmental programs.